African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology. Vol 21, No 2 (2020):78-87

Microbiome: pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and drug/xenobiotic interactions
M.O. Ojezele

The participation of microbiota in myriads of physiological, metabolic,? genetic and immunological processes shows that they are a fundamental part of human existence and health maintenance. The efficiency of drugs??? absorption depends on solubility, stability, permeability and metabolic? ? enzymes produced by the body and gut microbiota. Two major types of microbiota-drug interaction have been identified; direct and indirect. The use of antibiotics is a direct means of targeting intestinal microbes and short-term use of antibiotic can significantly alter the microbiome? composition. It is noteworthy that not every microbial drug metabolism is of benefit to the host as some drugs can shut down microbial processes as observed in the co-administration of antiviral sorivudine with? fluoropyridimide resulting in a toxic buildup of fluoropyridimide metabolites from blockade of host fluoropyridimide by the microbial-sorivudine? metabolite. It has been reported that many classes of drugs and? xenobiotics modify the gut microbiome composition which may be detrimental to human health. Microbiome-drug interaction may be beneficial or detrimental resulting in either treatment success or failure which is largely dependent on factors such as microbial enzymes, chemical composition of candidate drug, host immunity and the complex relationship that exists with the microbiome. The effects of microbiota on pharmacology of drugs and vice versa are discussed in this review.Keywords: microbiome; pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, drug, xenobiotic? English Title: Microbiome: pharmacocin?(C)tique, pharmacodynamique et interactions m?(C)dicamenteuses/x?(C)nobiotiquesLa participation du microbiote ? des myriades de processus physiologiques, m?(C)taboliques, g?(C)n?(C)tiques et immunologiques montre qu???ils sont un ?(C)l?(C)ment fondamental de l???existence et du maintien de la sant?(C) de l?????tre humain. L???efficacit?(C) de l???absorption des m?(C)dicaments d?(C)pend de la solubilit?(C), de la stabilit?(C), de la perm?(C)abilit?(C) et des enzymes m?(C)taboliques produites par le corps et le microbiote intestinal. Deux types principaux d???interaction microbiote-m?(C)dicament ont ?(C)t?(C) identifi?(C)s; direct et indirect. L'utilisation d'antibiotiques est un moyen direct de cibler les microbes intestinaux et une utilisation ? court terme d'antibiotique peut modifier de mani??re significative la composition du microbiome. Il est ? noter que tous les m?(C)tabolismes de m?(C)dicaments microbiens ne sont pas b?(C)n?(C)fiques pour l'h??te, car certains m?(C)dicaments peuvent arr??ter les processus microbiens observ?(C)s lors de l'administration concomitante d'antiviral sorivudine et de fluoropyridimide, ce qui entra?(R)ne une accumulation toxique de m?(C)tabolites de fluoropyridimide r?(C)sultant du blocage du fluoropyridimide par l'h??te. m?(C)tabolite microbien-sorivudine. Il a ?(C)t?(C) rapport?(C) que de nombreuses classes de m?(C)dicaments et de x?(C)nobiotiques modifiaient la composition du microbiome intestinal, ce qui pourrait nuire ? la sant?(C) humaine. Une? interaction m?(C)dicamenteuse-microbiome peut ??tre b?(C)n?(C)fique ou? pr?(C)judiciable, entra?(R)nant le succ??s ou l'?(C)chec du traitement, qui d?(C)pend en grande partie de facteurs tels que les enzymes microbiennes, la? composition chimique du m?(C)dicament candidat, l'immunit?(C) de l'h??te et la relation complexe qui existe avec le microbiome. Les effets du microbiote sur la pharmacologie des m?(C)dicaments et inversement sont discut?(C)s dans cette revue.Mots-cl?(C)s: microbiome; pharmacocin?(C)tique, pharmacodynamique,? m?(C)dicament, x?(C)nobiotique

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