Predictors of Time to First Line Antiretroviral Treatment Failure among Adult Patients Living with HIV in Public Health Facilities of Arba Minch Town, Southern Ethiopia
Bilcha Oumer Enderis, Sultan Hussen Hebo, Mesfin Kote Debir, Negussie Boti Sidamo, Mulugeta Shegaze Shimber
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy is a proven medication given for Human Immunodeficiency Virus positive individuals. However, first-line antiretroviral treatment failure becomes a public health issue and early detection of treatment failure is crucial for timely actions. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the predictors of time to first-line antiretroviral treatment failure among adult patients living with HIV in public health facilities of Arba Minch Town.METHODS: Institution-based retrospective cohort study was employed among 396 adult patients that were selected using simple random sampling. The data on relevant variables were extracted from patient medical cards. Bi-variable and multi-variable Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were used to identify predictors.RESULTS: The median survival time was 21 months. Substance use (AHR=2.94, 95% CI=1.62 to 5.32), disclosure status (AHR=1.98, 95% CI=1.03 to 3.79), time since HIV diagnosis (AHR=2.19 95% CI=1.01 to 4.79), WHO clinical stage (AHR=2.02, 95% CI=1.02 to 4.00), opportunistic infection (AHR=2.27, 95% CI=1.23 to 4.19), nutritional status (AHR=3.78, 95% CI=1.99 to 7.17), functional status (AHR=2.71 95% CI=1.33 to 5.51), CD4 count (AHR=1.99, 95% CI=1.05 to 3.75), and adherence level (AHR=1.99, 95% CI=1.05 to 3.76) were independent predictors of time to first line ART treatment failure.CONCLUSION: History of substance use, lack of disclosure status, time since HIV diagnosis, advanced WHO clinical staging, low CD4 counts, opportunistic infection, functional status, poor adherence to ART and under-nutrition affect the time to first-line treatment failure among adult patients living with HIV. Therefore, preventive interventions, and information and counseling focusing on high risk groups of HIV infected adult are very important.