Chronic Malnutrition Among Under Five Children of Ethiopia May Not Be Economic. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Kalkidan Hassen Abate, Tefera Belachew
Background: Ethiopia is one of the four low income countries in achieving MDG4, however, minimizing child undernutrition became critical undertaking thus far. This review aimed at identifying the predictors of under-5 children nutrition in Ethiopia.Methods: Databases searched were Med Line, HINARY, MedNar and Embase. Furthermore, gray literatures were also sought. All papers selected for inclusion in the review were subjected to a rigorous critical appraisal using standardized critical appraisal instruments from the Joanna Briggs Institute. Quantitative papers were pooled for statistical analysis and narrative synthesis. Odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated for analysis. Papers of optimal quality but without optimal data set for meta-analysis were subjected for narrative synthesisResults: Nonadherence towards Optimal feeding recommendations was the most reported predictor of stunting and wasting, while, maternal education and ???Water, Sanitation and Hygiene??? factors were the second. The findings of the Meta-analysis showed no evidence of association between household income/wealth and stunting of children in Ethiopia (OR=1.14, 95% CI= 0.97, 1.34), heterogeneity test:i2 = 92%, df = 20, (P < 0.00001). On the other hand, children in low income/wealth group were 1.73 times more likely to have wasting compared to children of the higher income/wealth households (OR=1.73, 95% C I= 1.51, 1.97) heterogeneity test: i2 = 71%, df = 20, (P < 0.00001).Conclusion: An over-reliance on macroeconomic growth as a solitary factor towards undernutrition should not be the way forward. Supplementary and more focused nutrition specific and sensitive interventions are needed in Ethiopia.